Primary Sources

Boylston, Zabdiel. “An Historical Account of the Small-Pox Inoculated in New England, upon All Sorts of Persons, Whites, Blacks, and of All Ages and Constitutions: with Some Account of the Nature of the Infection in the Natural and Inoculated Way, and Their Different Effects on Human Bodies: With Some Short Directions to the Unexperienced in This Method of Practice,” 1730.1,2

Cooper, William. “A Reply to the Objections Made against Taking the Small Pox in the Way of Inoculation from Principles of Conscience :  In a Letter to a Friend in the Country,” 1730.1,2

Douglass, William. “A Dissertation Concerning Inoculation of the Small-Pox. Giving Some Account of the Rise, Progress, Success, Advantages and Disadvantages of Receiving the Small Pox by Incisions Illustrated by Sundry Cases of the Inoculated,” 1730.2

———. “Postscript to Abuses, &c. Obviated :  Being a Short and Modest Answer to Matters of Fact Maliciously Misrepresented in a Late Doggrel Dialogue,” March 1722.1

———. “Inoculation of the Small Pox as Practised in Boston :  Consider’d in a Letter to A- S- M.D. & F.R.S. in London,” January 1722.1

———. “The Abuses and Scandals of Some Late Pamphlets in Favour of Inoculation of the Small Pox, Modestly Obviated, and Inoculation Further Consider’d in a Letter to A- S- M.D. & F.R.S. in London,” March 1722.1,2

Grainger, Samuel. “The Imposition of Inoculation as a Duty Religiously Considered in a Leter [sic] to a Gentleman in the Country Inclin’d to Admit It,” 1721.1

Greenwood, Isaac. “A Friendly Debate, Or, A Dialogue, between Academicus, and Sawny & Mundungus, Two Eminent Physicians, about Some of Their Late Performances.,” 1722.1

Massey, Edmund. “A Sermon against the Dangerous and Sinful Practice of Inoculation. Preach’d at St. Andrew’s Holborn, on Sunday, July the 8th, 1722. / By Edmund Massey, M.A. Lecturer of St. Alban Woodstreet.,” July 8, 1722.2

Mather, Cotton. “A Vindication of the Ministers of Boston, from the Abuses & Scandals Lately Cast upon Them in Diverse Printed Papers. Boston in New-England,” February 1722.1,2

———. “An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox, in Boston in New-England /  In a Letter from a Gentleman There, to His Friend in London,” 17221.

———. “Some Account of What Is Said of Inoculating or Transplanting the Small Pox /  by the Learned Dr. Emanuel Timonius, and Jacobus Pylarinus ; with Some Remarks Thereon ; to Which Are Added, a Few Quaeries in Answer to the Scruples of Many about the Lawfulness of This Method ; Published by Dr. Zabdiel Boylstone,” 1721.1,2

Mather, Cotton, and Increase Mather. “Several Reasons Proving That Inoculation or Transplanting the Small Pox, Is a Lawful Practice, and That It Has Been Blessed by God for the Saving of Many a Life AND Sentiments on the Small Pox Inoculated,” 1721.1

Neal, Daniel, Benjamin Colman, and William Cooper. “A Narrative of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox in New England /  by Mr. Benj. Colman. With A Reply to the Objections Made against It from Principles of Conscience / in a Letter from a Minister at Boston ; to Which Is Now Prefixed an Historical Introduction by Daniel Neal.,” 1730.1

Rusticus. “A Friendly Debate, Or, A Dialogue between Rusticus and Academicus about the Late Performance of [A]Cademicus,” 1722.1

Williams, John. “Several Arguments, Proving, That Inoculating the Small Pox Is Not Contained in the Law of Physick, Either Natural or Divine, and Therefore Unlawful :together with a Reply to Two Short Pieces, One by the Rev. Dr. Increase Mather, and Another by an Anonymous Author, Intituled, Sentiments on the Small Pox Inoculated : And Also a Short Answer to a Late Letter in the New-England Courant,” 1721.1


The primary sources listed above are located in two online collections.

1 “The Boston Smallpox Epidemic, 1721.” Contagion: Historical Views of Diseases and Epidemics: The Open Collections Program. Houghton Library—Harvard College Library.  Accessed June 5, 2015,

2 Evans Early American Imprint Collection: Text Creation Partnership. U. of Mich. Library, Accessed June 5, 2015,

Secondary Sources

Burnham, John C. Health Care in America: A History. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2015.

Dunn, Richard S. “John Winthrop | Biography – American Colonial Governor.” Encyclopedia Britannica. Accessed May 7, 2015.

“FAQ – Text Creation Partnership.” Accessed May 26, 2015.

Kass, Amalie M. “Boston’s Historic Smallpox Epidemic.” Massachusetts Historical Review 14 (January 2012): 1–52.

Minardi, Margot. “The Boston Inoculation Controversy of 1721-1722: An Incident in the History of Race.” William & Mary Quarterly 61, no. 1 (January 2004): 47–76.

Nettles, Curtis. The Roots of American Civilization: A History of American Civilization. Second. New York: Meredith Publishing Company, 1963.

Porter, Roy. The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1997.

Sivils, Matthew Wynn. “Dissecting the Pamphlet Literature of the Boston Smallpox Inoculation Controversy.” Literature and Medicine 29, no. 1 (2011): 39–57. doi:10.1353/lm.2011.0315.

Tindol, Robert. “Getting the Pox of All Their Houses: Cotton Mather and the Rhetoric of Puritan Science.” Early American Literature 46, no. 1 (March 2011): 1–23.

Van de Wetering, Maxine. “A Reconsideration of the Inoculation Controversy.” New England Quarterly 58, no. 1 (March 1985): 46–67.


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